Entrepreneurs frequently think “outside the box” on a regular basis. But it appears a rule-breaking mentality might be more associated with entrepreneurship than expected. 

A new study has found a link between adolescent rebellion and entrepreneurship in men, finding that male entrepreneurs were more likely to cause trouble as teens than the average person, reports Popular Science

The study, published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior, expanded on the results of a similar 2009 study that originally found a connection between breaking moderate rules as adolescents and entrepreneurial tendencies later in life. This new study analyzed the behaviors of 1,000 people (both genders) from a Swedish town from when they were 10-years-old until they were 50.

The Popular Science article states that, “The same urge to innovate, think outside the box, take risks and break rules that helps an entrepreneur later in life might lead them to more destructive behavior as a teenager.” 

The study identified moderate rule breaking activity as a positive predictor of an entrepreneurial career. This relationship only held true for males, however, not females.  A key takeaway from the study also is that this association was not found between entrepreneurship and severe, serious crimes.

It found that male entrepreneurs during their teenage years were more likely to come home past curfew or talk back to their parents--or in Bill Gate’s case, commit traffic violation--than the average male youth who went on to pursue other careers. 

“We think that it could be the early entrepreneurial spirit,” Martin Obschonka, lead author of the study reported to the media outlet.