Under the doctrine of contribution, a defendant who has paid more than his proportionate share of the award has a claim against the other jointly liable parties for the excess payment. In California, the pro rata share of each defendant is determined by dividing the entire judgment equally among all of them.

Under the doctrine of indemnification, a defendant can shift some or all of its share of the damages to another defendant. This may occur, for example, by contract.

Example - Xerox-Accent Color Registration Rights Agreement
2.7.1 Company's Indemnification of Purchasers. The Company shall indemnify each Selling Shareholder, each of its officers, directors and constituent partners, and each person controlling such Selling Shareholder, and each underwriter thereof, if any, and each of its officers, directors, constituent partners, and each person who controls such underwriter, against all claims, losses, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) suffered or incurred by any of them, to the extent such claims, losses, damages orliabilities arise out of or are based upon any untrue statement (or alleged untrue statement) of a material fact contained in any prospectus or any related Registration Statement incident to any such Registration, or any omission (or alleged omission) to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or any violation by the Company of any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act applicable to the Company and relating to actions or inaction required of the Company in connection with any such Registration; and the Company will reimburse each such Selling Shareholder, each such underwriter, each of their officers, directors and constituent partners and each person who controls any such Selling Shareholder or underwriter, for any legal and any other expenses as reasonablyincurred in connection with investigating or defending any such claim, loss, damage, liability or action; provided however, that the indemnity contained in this Section 2.7.1 shall not apply to amounts paid in settlement of any such claim, loss, damage, liability or action if settlement is effected without theconsent of the Company (which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld); and provided however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any such claim, loss, damage, liability or expense arises out of or is based upon any untrue statement or omission based upon written informationfurnished to the Company by such Selling Shareholder, underwriter, controlling person or other indemnified person and stated to be for use in connection with the offering of securities of the Company.

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