Article Object ( [inc_foreignid] => [inc_title] => Why the Way You Read Affects How Successful You Are [inc_headline_prefix] => [inc_headline] => Why the Way You Read Affects How Successful You Are [inc_homepage_headline] => What Your Reading Habits Say About You [inc_homepage_headline_ab_test] => [inc_lander_headline] => [inc_sharing_headline] => [inc_twitter_headline] => [inc_column_name_override] => [inc_reference_name] => [inc_custom_byline] => [inc_typid] => 1 [inc_autid] => [inc_deck] => [inc_homepage_deck] => [inc_lander_deck] => [inc_sharing_deck] => [inc_image_caption_override] => [inc_show_feature_imageflag] => [inc_pubdate] => 2015-01-29 08:35:00 [inc_promo_date] => [inc_custom_pubdate] => [inc_meta_keywords] => [inc_custom_additional_description] => [inc_filelocation] => vanessa-merit-nornberg/why-the-way-you-read-affects-how-successful-you-are.html [inc_override_url] => [inc_custom_header] => [inc_custom_css] => [inc_custom_javascript] => [inc_display_videos_as_playlistflag] => [inc_autoplay_videoflag] => [inc_display_video_at_bottomflag] => [inc_hide_video_prerollflag] => [inc_clean_text] => [inc_code_only_text] => [inc_notepad] => [inc_toolbar_text] => [inc_read_more_override] => [inc_show_read_moreflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar_head] => [inc_sidebar_adcodeflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar] => [inc_custom_footer] => [inc_full_width_footerflag] => [inc_show_pinboardflag] => [inc_staid] => 7 [inc_premiumflag] => [inc_newsworthyflag] => FALSE [inc_standoutflag] => FALSE [inc_evergreen_contentflag] => [inc_homepage_riverflag] => [inc_comment_alert] => [inc_copyeditedflag] => TRUE [inc_activeflag] => TRUE [inc_hide_bucket_imageflag] => [inc_hide_article_sidebarflag] => [inc_hide_commentsflag] => [inc_show_social_linksflag] => [inc_prtid] => [inc_canonical_url] => [inc_serid] => [inc_registration_requiredflag] => [inc_use_narrow_navflag] => [inc_no_cacheflag] => [inc_eopid] => [inc_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_custom_adzone] => [inc_imu_style_image_overrideref] => [inc_imu_style_image_override_ab_testref] => [inc_tile_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_alchemyupdatetime] => [owner_admid] => [inc_f1temp] => [inc_alchemyentityxml] => [inc_alchemykeywordxml] => [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '69278' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => [time_updated] => [id] => 69278 [sortorder] => [tbl] => article [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [rubric] => [sort] => 0 [largeformat] => FALSE [baseurl] => http://www.inc.com/ [timestamp] => 8:35AM ET [homepage_headline] => What Your Reading Habits Say About You [homepage_headline2] => What Your Reading Habits Say About You [homepage_deck] => [lightfeatureimage] => FALSE [imagelist_primary] => Array ( [49127] => Image Object ( [img_foreignkey] => [img_reference_name] => woman on smartphone [img_caption] => [img_alt_text] => woman on smartphone [img_custom_credit] => [img_custom_meta_data] => [img_phoid] => 872 [img_ityid] => 1 [img_bucketref] => [img_bucket_dimx] => [img_bucket_dimy] => [img_f1imageref] => [img_panoramicref] => woman-on-smartphone.jpg [img_pan_dimx] => 970 [img_pan_dimy] => 450 [img_light_imageflag] => FALSE [img_tile_override_imageref] => woman-on-smartphone-300.jpg [img_skyscraperref] => [img_sky_dimx] => [img_sky_dimy] => [img_super_panoramicref] => [img_gallery_imageref] => [img_full_screen_ref] => [img_custom_cropref] => [img_full_text] => [img_tags] => woman on smartphone [img_notes] => 504387543 [img_gettyflag] => TRUE [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '69278' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => 2015-01-29 12:54:15 [time_updated] => 2015-01-29 12:54:53 [id] => 49127 [sortorder] => [tbl] => image [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [error] => Array ( [0] => Problem initializing. A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. A method for "imgid" does not exist. ) [sort] => ) ) ) Article Object ( [inc_foreignid] => [inc_title] => Turning the 'Bulletproof' Coffee Craze Into a Big Brand [inc_headline_prefix] => [inc_headline] => Turning the 'Bulletproof' Coffee Craze Into a Big Brand [inc_homepage_headline] => 'Bulletproof' Coffee Creator Sets His Sights on the Mainstream [inc_homepage_headline_ab_test] => [inc_lander_headline] => [inc_sharing_headline] => [inc_twitter_headline] => [inc_column_name_override] => [inc_reference_name] => [inc_custom_byline] => [inc_typid] => 1 [inc_autid] => [inc_deck] => [inc_homepage_deck] => [inc_lander_deck] => [inc_sharing_deck] => [inc_image_caption_override] => [inc_show_feature_imageflag] => [inc_pubdate] => 2015-01-29 06:00:00 [inc_promo_date] => [inc_custom_pubdate] => [inc_meta_keywords] => [inc_custom_additional_description] => [inc_filelocation] => jill-krasny/dave-asprey-bulletproof-coffee-cafe.html [inc_override_url] => [inc_custom_header] => [inc_custom_css] => [inc_custom_javascript] => [inc_display_videos_as_playlistflag] => [inc_autoplay_videoflag] => [inc_display_video_at_bottomflag] => [inc_hide_video_prerollflag] => [inc_clean_text] => [inc_code_only_text] => [inc_notepad] => [inc_toolbar_text] => [inc_read_more_override] => [inc_show_read_moreflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar_head] => [inc_sidebar_adcodeflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar] => [inc_custom_footer] => [inc_full_width_footerflag] => [inc_show_pinboardflag] => [inc_staid] => 7 [inc_premiumflag] => [inc_newsworthyflag] => FALSE [inc_standoutflag] => FALSE [inc_evergreen_contentflag] => [inc_homepage_riverflag] => [inc_comment_alert] => [inc_copyeditedflag] => TRUE [inc_activeflag] => TRUE [inc_hide_bucket_imageflag] => [inc_hide_article_sidebarflag] => [inc_hide_commentsflag] => [inc_show_social_linksflag] => [inc_prtid] => [inc_canonical_url] => [inc_serid] => [inc_registration_requiredflag] => [inc_use_narrow_navflag] => [inc_no_cacheflag] => [inc_eopid] => [inc_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_custom_adzone] => [inc_imu_style_image_overrideref] => [inc_imu_style_image_override_ab_testref] => [inc_tile_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_alchemyupdatetime] => [owner_admid] => [inc_f1temp] => [inc_alchemyentityxml] => [inc_alchemykeywordxml] => [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '68856' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => [time_updated] => [id] => 68856 [sortorder] => [tbl] => article [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [rubric] => [sort] => 1 [largeformat] => FALSE [baseurl] => http://www.inc.com/ [timestamp] => 6:00AM ET [homepage_headline] => 'Bulletproof' Coffee Creator Sets His Sights on the Mainstream [homepage_headline2] => 'Bulletproof' Coffee Creator Sets His Sights on the Mainstream [homepage_deck] => [lightfeatureimage] => FALSE [imagelist_primary] => Array ( [49038] => Image Object ( [img_foreignkey] => [img_reference_name] => coffee beans [img_caption] => [img_alt_text] => coffee beans [img_custom_credit] => [img_custom_meta_data] => [img_phoid] => 872 [img_ityid] => 1 [img_bucketref] => [img_bucket_dimx] => [img_bucket_dimy] => [img_f1imageref] => [img_panoramicref] => coffee-beans.jpg [img_pan_dimx] => 970 [img_pan_dimy] => 450 [img_light_imageflag] => FALSE [img_tile_override_imageref] => [img_skyscraperref] => [img_sky_dimx] => [img_sky_dimy] => [img_super_panoramicref] => [img_gallery_imageref] => [img_full_screen_ref] => [img_custom_cropref] => [img_full_text] => [img_tags] => coffee beans [img_notes] => amelafjr76971 [img_gettyflag] => TRUE [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '68856' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => 2015-01-28 17:49:05 [time_updated] => 2015-01-28 17:49:46 [id] => 49038 [sortorder] => [tbl] => image [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [error] => Array ( [0] => Problem initializing. A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. A method for "imgid" does not exist. ) [sort] => ) ) ) Article Object ( [inc_foreignid] => [inc_title] => 7 Critical Mistakes to Avoid in Business Negotiations [inc_headline_prefix] => [inc_headline] => 7 Critical Mistakes to Avoid in Business Negotiations [inc_homepage_headline] => [inc_homepage_headline_ab_test] => [inc_lander_headline] => [inc_sharing_headline] => [inc_twitter_headline] => [inc_column_name_override] => [inc_reference_name] => [inc_custom_byline] => [inc_typid] => 1 [inc_autid] => [inc_deck] => [inc_homepage_deck] => [inc_lander_deck] => [inc_sharing_deck] => [inc_image_caption_override] => [inc_show_feature_imageflag] => [inc_pubdate] => 2015-01-28 12:30:00 [inc_promo_date] => [inc_custom_pubdate] => [inc_meta_keywords] => [inc_custom_additional_description] => [inc_filelocation] => jayson-demers/7-critical-mistakes-to-avoid-in-business-negotiations.html [inc_override_url] => [inc_custom_header] => [inc_custom_css] => [inc_custom_javascript] => [inc_display_videos_as_playlistflag] => [inc_autoplay_videoflag] => [inc_display_video_at_bottomflag] => [inc_hide_video_prerollflag] => [inc_clean_text] => [inc_code_only_text] => [inc_notepad] => [inc_toolbar_text] => [inc_read_more_override] => [inc_show_read_moreflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar_head] => [inc_sidebar_adcodeflag] => [inc_custom_sidebar] => [inc_custom_footer] => [inc_full_width_footerflag] => [inc_show_pinboardflag] => [inc_staid] => 7 [inc_premiumflag] => [inc_newsworthyflag] => FALSE [inc_standoutflag] => [inc_evergreen_contentflag] => [inc_homepage_riverflag] => [inc_comment_alert] => [inc_copyeditedflag] => TRUE [inc_activeflag] => TRUE [inc_hide_bucket_imageflag] => [inc_hide_article_sidebarflag] => [inc_hide_commentsflag] => [inc_show_social_linksflag] => [inc_prtid] => [inc_canonical_url] => [inc_serid] => [inc_registration_requiredflag] => [inc_use_narrow_navflag] => [inc_no_cacheflag] => [inc_eopid] => [inc_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_custom_adzone] => [inc_imu_style_image_overrideref] => [inc_imu_style_image_override_ab_testref] => [inc_tile_tracking_pixel_url] => [inc_alchemyupdatetime] => [owner_admid] => [inc_f1temp] => [inc_alchemyentityxml] => [inc_alchemykeywordxml] => [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '69195' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => [time_updated] => [id] => 69195 [sortorder] => [tbl] => article [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [rubric] => [sort] => 2 [largeformat] => FALSE [baseurl] => http://www.inc.com/ [timestamp] => [homepage_headline] => 7 Critical Mistakes to Avoid in Business Negotiations [homepage_headline2] => 7 Critical Mistakes to Avoid in Business Negotiations [homepage_deck] => [lightfeatureimage] => FALSE [imagelist_primary] => Array ( [48922] => Image Object ( [img_foreignkey] => 176558909 [img_reference_name] => getty_176558909_97064797045000.jpg [img_caption] => [img_alt_text] => Businesswoman Discussing With Colleague In Office [img_custom_credit] => [img_custom_meta_data] => [img_phoid] => 872 [img_ityid] => 5 [img_bucketref] => [img_bucket_dimx] => [img_bucket_dimy] => [img_f1imageref] => [img_panoramicref] => getty_176558909_97064797045000.jpg [img_pan_dimx] => 970 [img_pan_dimy] => 450 [img_light_imageflag] => TRUE [img_tile_override_imageref] => [img_skyscraperref] => [img_sky_dimx] => [img_sky_dimy] => [img_super_panoramicref] => [img_gallery_imageref] => [img_full_screen_ref] => [img_custom_cropref] => [img_full_text] => [img_tags] => [img_notes] => [img_gettyflag] => TRUE [dbObj] => MDB2_Driver_mysql Object ( [string_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ' [end] => ' [escape] => \ [escape_pattern] => \ ) [identifier_quoting] => Array ( [start] => ` [end] => ` [escape] => ` ) [sql_comments] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => -- [end] => [escape] => ) [1] => Array ( [start] => # [end] => [escape] => ) [2] => Array ( [start] => /* [end] => */ [escape] => ) ) [server_capabilities_checked] => 1 [start_transaction] => 1 [varchar_max_length] => 65532 [db_index] => 1 [dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connected_dsn] => Array ( [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [username] => inccom [password] => b4Fjf2jaFLfc [protocol] => tcp [hostspec] => MYDB [port] => [socket] => [database] => [mode] => ) [connection] => Resource id #7 [opened_persistent] => [database_name] => sitecontent [connected_database_name] => sitecontent [connected_server_info] => 5.5.38-35.2-log [supported] => Array ( [sequences] => emulated [indexes] => 1 [affected_rows] => 1 [summary_functions] => 1 [order_by_text] => 1 [transactions] => 1 [savepoints] => 1 [current_id] => emulated [limit_queries] => 1 [LOBs] => 1 [replace] => 1 [sub_selects] => 1 [triggers] => 1 [auto_increment] => 1 [primary_key] => 1 [result_introspection] => 1 [prepared_statements] => 1 [identifier_quoting] => 1 [pattern_escaping] => 1 [new_link] => 1 ) [options] => Array ( [ssl] => [field_case] => 0 [disable_query] => [result_class] => MDB2_Result_%s [buffered_result_class] => MDB2_BufferedResult_%s [result_wrap_class] => [result_buffering] => 1 [fetch_class] => stdClass [persistent] => [debug] => 0 [debug_handler] => MDB2_defaultDebugOutput [debug_expanded_output] => [default_text_field_length] => 4096 [lob_buffer_length] => 8192 [log_line_break] => [idxname_format] => %s_idx [seqname_format] => %s_seq [savepoint_format] => MDB2_SAVEPOINT_%s [statement_format] => MDB2_STATEMENT_%1$s_%2$s [seqcol_name] => sequence [quote_identifier] => [use_transactions] => 1 [decimal_places] => 2 [portability] => 127 [modules] => Array ( [ex] => Extended [dt] => Datatype [mg] => Manager [rv] => Reverse [na] => Native [fc] => Function ) [emulate_prepared] => [datatype_map] => Array ( ) [datatype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [nativetype_map_callback] => Array ( ) [lob_allow_url_include] => [bindname_format] => (?:\d+)|(?:[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*) [max_identifiers_length] => 64 [default_fk_action_onupdate] => RESTRICT [default_fk_action_ondelete] => RESTRICT [DBA_username] => [DBA_password] => [default_table_type] => ) [wildcards] => Array ( [0] => % [1] => _ ) [as_keyword] => AS [warnings] => Array ( ) [debug_output] => [in_transaction] => [nested_transaction_counter] => [has_transaction_error] => [offset] => 0 [limit] => 0 [phptype] => mysql [dbsyntax] => mysql [last_query] => SELECT * FROM article_image INNER JOIN image ON article_image.imgid = image.id WHERE article_image.incid = '69195' ORDER BY article_image.sortorder [fetchmode] => 1 [modules] => Array ( ) [destructor_registered] => 1 [_debug] => [_default_error_mode] => [_default_error_options] => [_default_error_handler] => [_error_class] => PEAR_Error [_expected_errors] => Array ( ) ) [time_created] => 2015-01-28 12:22:45 [time_updated] => 2015-01-28 12:22:45 [id] => 48922 [sortorder] => [tbl] => image [fields] => [application_path] => /public_web_sites/www.inc.com/reflex/ [core_application_url] => http://www.inc.com/ [error] => Array ( [0] => Problem initializing. A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. 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A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. A method for "imgid" does not exist. ) [sort] => 0 ) ) ) Article Object ( [inc_foreignid] => 87068 [inc_title] => Why the Way You Read Affects How Successful You Are [inc_headline_prefix] => [inc_headline] => Why the Way You Read Affects How Successful You Are [inc_homepage_headline] => What Your Reading Habits Say About You [inc_homepage_headline_ab_test] => Why the Way You Read Affects How Successful You Are [inc_lander_headline] => [inc_sharing_headline] => [inc_twitter_headline] => Why how you read speaks volumes about how successful you will be @VanessaNornberg [inc_column_name_override] => [inc_reference_name] => [inc_custom_byline] => [inc_typid] => 1 [inc_autid] => [inc_deck] => Do you read every word and pay close attention to the details and nuances, or do you fly through the information in front of you for the main idea? 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With the advent of text messages, emails, and other technology-based forms of communication, the way in which we--and our employees--read has more to do with both individual and business success than ever before. Do you read every word and pay close attention to the details and nuances, or do you fly through the information in front of you for the main idea? See what your reading style says about your chances for success.

Speed Reader. You blow through emails and pride yourself on your rapid response time--no one is faster than you. Sure, but have you ever gone back and double-checked to make sure you have not let any of the email's specific points fall through the cracks? Rapid readers may get through information quickly, but they often miss important details in their "read with speed" technique. The real estate agent representing the sellers of a property a friend of mine was buying surely thought she did well by her clients when she drove their property into a bidding war, but her rapid response style of reading cost her clients $25,000 when she did not carefully read the offer contained in my friend's agent's email and transmitted the wrong figure to them.

Skimmer. Your eyes skip a word here and there, so your email exchanges have some back and forth, but you eventually get done what needs doing. Chances are, your contacts and colleagues view you like they would a C student. You frustrate them with your hit or miss attitude, so you are not likely to inspire enough confidence to win a new deal or get a raise or promotion. Contacts will end up bypassing you when possible and relegate you to the pile of last resorts. When I recently reached out to our health insurance broker, she did the opposite of what I asked in my email, and ended up costing herself (and me!) a lot of time and hassle that could have been avoided if she had read my request as it was written in the initial email. In the process, she made sure that when it comes time to renew our policy, I will go directly to the health insurance company itself and cut her out.

Scrutinizer. Read, reflect, respond. You take the time to read an email in its entirety and then send one succinct reply. It takes a bit longer than you would like sometimes, but being thorough minimizes the clutter in your inbox, helps you stay organized, and ultimately shows the person on the other side of the communication that he can trust you with his business. A prospective customer recently sent me a list of questions about our products, and I carefully answered each point with a clear explanation and concise technical information about our products. A week later, the customer placed a large order and told me that he had chosen our company because, unlike our competitors, I was the only person who had addressed every concern he had raised, so he felt comfortable giving us his business.

Don't let your reading strategy sink your chances at success. If you want colleagues, contacts, and customers to feel they are in good hands with you, slow down, stop scanning, and start reading like your life depends on it--because professionally speaking, it does.

 

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In February, Dave Asprey will cut the ribbon on his first-ever Bulletproof café. After nearly five years, it seems like a logical step for a guy whose butter-infused coffee inspired a cult following. Read on for the story of how Asprey went from experimenting with "biohacking" his own body to building a thriving business. (And check out more stories in our Built From Passion series.)

Where the Idea Came From 

At 20, Dave Asprey was depressed, overweight, and eating to cope with his emotions, which veered from clear and decisive to stricken with fear. After buying disability insurance, "because I got to the point where I wouldn't hire myself," he told Inc. last summer, the former project manager and software entrepreneur became obsessed with his health, from the quality and duration of his sleep to the fat content of foods he consumed. 

The more he studied himself, the more he realized he wasn't after a quick pick-me-up but the feeling of being on, all the time. At a friend's suggestion, he began taking so-called smart drugs--a broad term for compounds that heighten cognition--and he says then his hazy world came into focus. After shedding 50 pounds in three months, "I fired my doctor and started taking smart drugs without supervision," he said. He went on to lose 50 more. 

Asprey, who is 41 and lives in the Bay Area, spent 15 years and more than $300,000 to "hack" his biology. He claims he upgraded his brain by more than 20 IQ points and lowered his biological age while learning to sleep more efficiently. He says that learning to do these seemingly impossible things has turned him into a better entrepreneur, husband, and father. This premise became the foundation for Bulletproof Executive, the self-funded performance-coaching company Asprey started in 2010. 

Experimenting with smart drugs eventually led Asprey to toy with that most quotidian of energy boosters--coffee. In 2009, he first posted a recipe for Bulletproof coffee, the coffee and butter beverage that he now says was key to his transformation. By 2012 he began selling Bulletproof-branded low-mold coffee beans online. (Toxins from mold are "performance-robbing," he told the Times.) Soon he added supplements like Brain Octane (his own medium-chain triglyceride oil, an easily digestible fat). Since the Food and Drug Administration doesn't review supplements, Asprey continues to roll out his own; the latest, called Unfair Advantage, is intended to grow mitochondria--i.e., cells in the muscles and brain--in order to slow down the process of aging. 

How the Business Took Off 

As word got around, Bulletproof coffee gained a cult following. It became popular among tech types in Silicon Valley, New York City, and Seattle, and won over celebrities such as music producer Rick Rubin, who introduced the drink to British singer Ed Sheeran, and Dr. Frank Lipman, an integrative doctor who treats Gwyneth Paltrow. The 450-calorie drink is ideal for "mind clarity and a bit of pep," Lipman told the Times.

Making the coffee is simple: You start with some low-mold coffee beans; add at least two tablespoons of unsalted butter (grassfed, which is higher in omega-3s and vitamins); and dump in one to two tablespoons of MCT oil. Put the whole thing in a blender and mix until smooth. Your energy levels will go through the roof, Asprey says, and your hunger will fly out the window. 

Now, nearly five years after its launch, Bulletproof Executive is a 20-person company endorsing the biohacking lifestyle (the company declined to provide revenue numbers). Last year, the website drew some six million unique visitors, and 11 million people have downloaded Asprey's health podcast on iTunes. His book, The Bulletproof Diet: Lose up to a Pound a Day, Reclaim Energy and Focus, Upgrade Your Life, was published in January. The Bulletproof shop and cafés are up next. 

After running a "quantitative analysis" to see where Bulletproof coffee was most popular, Asprey settled on Los Angeles for his first standalone café, which he says will be anything but a regular coffee shop. Noting he has "several of the early people from the Starbucks team" on board, the focus will be on getting customers to try the coffee. "The idea is that people still say, 'Butter in coffee?' and there's a disbelief that it can taste as good as it does or make you feel the way it does," he says. Clearly, he wants to convert them. 

"It's an experience; it's more than just coffee," Asprey continues. "We're building the whole store to have the Bulletproof principles in mind as we go through the day." This means lighting that's compatible with circadian rhythms, a Whole Body Vibration platform (like astronauts use to strengthen muscles on missions), and a small seating area where furniture and flooring "connect to the earth."

"It's the indoor equivalent of being outdoors in the park with bare feet," Asprey says proudly. "Studies have shown there are reductions in inflammation and stress when people are able to discharge and walk around." 

The coffee shop is the biggest sign Asprey thinks this is more than a fad. When asked why, he offers this anecdote: "Last night, I did a book signing in New York City, and a guy in the front row said, 'I've been drinking Bulletproof coffee every day for a year and a half. I've lost 50 pounds and started two companies.' Feeling this way isn't a fad," he says bluntly. "Once you do this, it's priceless to have your brain work all day and not have food cravings all day."

But how do you grow a business nontechie types may view skeptically? To hear Asprey tell it, you sell what the coffee does for you instead of the coffee (though that should taste great, too). "I care about the person coming in even more," Asprey says, contrasting his approach to other roasters like Stumptown Coffee, "not the estate or where the beans are grown." 

This year, Asprey plans to open two or three shops, gather data on their performance, and then "go substantially faster after we know what's there." The first store will be funded internally, and over time he'll expand the roast profiles of the coffee, in addition to brewing methods. "We want something that tastes creamy and delicious," he says of the drinks, whose prices will compare to Starbucks'. "We're still working on the menu and testing things." 

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Whether you're negotiating the price of a massive contract, or a salary raise that comes with a new position, negotiating skills are essential in the business world. If you're unable to negotiate fairly, logically, and persuasively, you could jeopardize your career, or at least miss out on significant opportunities as a result.

When trying to argue persuasively, participants sometimes rely on logical fallacies, or illogical arguments that seem rational at first glance, to prove their points. It's critical to avoid the emergence of such fallacies, as they can immediately weaken your argument. Likewise, it's important to observe the other party's arguments carefully, and point out any fallacies that may form the crux of his/her argument.

The key to most successful negotiations is planning, and you can avoid the pitfalls of logical fallacies by brainstorming about what possible fallacies could come up during negotiations. Preparation allows you to chart a course for your position, plan for possible rebuttals, consider possible alternatives and compromises, and determine the consequences of the negotiation's outcome. Seeing ahead this far should give you the opportunity to analyze your own argument for any potential weaknesses, and look for potential weak points in the other party's argumentative course.

As you prepare for the negotiation, keep the following dangerous logical fallacies in the back of your mind.

1. Straw man argument.

A straw man argument is an instance of one party misquoting or deliberately inventing a false version of another party's argument in an effort to make their own argument seem more appealing. For example, let's say your potential client claims that they can't engage in your services because they don't have enough available funds. You distort that argument by saying, "You say you don't think our services are worth the money, but I can prove objectively that we'll increase your ROI."

This is a straw man argument, because the argument you're trying to counter is not the same argument they initially presented. While the two arguments (real and distorted) are somewhat similar, you aren't actually addressing the point at hand. This could weaken your position or make the other party frustrated.

2. Appeal to consequences.

This type of fallacy is usually a sophisticated form of appealing to emotion, but sometimes it just cuts an important argumentative corner. Appealing to consequences is a way of asserting that an idea is true by arguing that the consequences of the idea's not being true are undesirable. A traditional example of this is arguing that free will has to exist because if it didn't life would have no point.

You may find yourself stumbling into this type of logical fallacy in a business negotiation. For example, if you're trying to negotiate an increased rate to your customer, you could say, "We are responsible for keeping your sales up. If we weren't, we wouldn't be in business." You can make the claim that you are responsible for their increased sales, but you need to back that argument up with objective data--not a hypothetical argument of what would happen if you weren't.

3. Ad hominem.

Ad hominem is a type of fallacy that involves attacking another person's character rather than his/her argument. You see this type of fallacy often in the political circuit; rather than diving into the logistics of the issue at hand, one candidate will accuse the other of being a liar.

While you wouldn't dare make such an obvious attack in the business world, this logical fallacy does have a tendency to pop up from time to time during negotiations. Let's say you're a candidate for a promotion, and the opposing candidate has argued that he is better educated than you. It's a logical fallacy if you try and refute this argument by saying something like "he probably didn't study as hard as I did." Instead, opt to argue that your experience means more than education, or find some other way to overcome the argument without undercutting the opposing party's character.

4. Slippery slope.

You see the slippery slope fallacy all the time during political debates. One person argues against the proposition of a new law or regulation simply because there's a chance that it could lead to more significant laws or regulations in the future.

Put this into a business perspective. Let's say you want your employee to take on a new responsibility, and he/she is resistant. It's a logical fallacy if he/she resists because he/she is afraid that by saying yes to this new responsibility, it will open the door to many new unwanted responsibilities. It's not logical because the argument is for only one additional responsibility, and the future is entirely hypothetical.

5. Correlation equals causation.

This argument is an especially tempting trap to fall into. Correlation is an observation that one action was taken and one result was obtained. It doesn't necessarily prove that the action was what caused the result; arguing that it did is a logical fallacy.

For example, if you're negotiating for a pay raise, it's illogical to argue that an increase in productivity was due solely to your own efforts. Let's say you're in marketing and your company's social media following increased since the time of your last evaluation. You can't tie your performance to those increased metrics unless you have a causal link. Otherwise, they could easily be attributed to a new company announcement, or an outlier in your data.

6. False dilemma.

The false dilemma fallacy starts with an assumption that there are only two possible answers to a solution, and those possibilities are at extreme ends of the spectrum. For example, if a co-worker is arguing against one of your plans for a given project and you argue, "You're either on board with this, or you're trying to sabotage the project," you've immediately created a false dilemma. The world is seldom black and white, and in this particular example, it's entirely possible that the co-worker is interested in the idea but is only trying to raise some possible concerns. Don't assume there are only two options for any scenario.

7. Red herring.

In detective stories, a red herring is a clue intended to lead the audience to one conclusion while the correct conclusion is different. In the context of negotiation, a red herring is a way of manipulating an argument instead of trying to address it. For example, if you and your boss are negotiating a pay raise and the subject of company budget comes up, it's a red herring if you keep changing the argument to the strength of your performance. You may have more leverage with performance than with budgetary concerns, but if you aren't addressing the budgetary argument, you're approaching the argument illogically.

Logical fallacies are a kind of poison that can infect an otherwise valid, valuable argument and render it completely useless. If you can spot and identify any in the other party's persuasive argument, you'll have the upper hand in crushing their argument totally. Likewise, you'll have to pay attention and keep them from encroaching on your own persuasive words. Doing so will put you in a better position, and strengthen your arguments.

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For as long as I can remember, the saying, "you just got lucky" or "that person is so lucky" has always made me cringe. I've never believed in luck--let me explain why.

Everything that happens in life can be traced back to some amount of effort. Or, in many cases, it's a boatload of effort.

When someone hits the game-winning 3-pointer in basketball, it's not luck that makes the shot go in. It's the 500 3-pointers that athlete has shot every day for months or years. It's the muscle memory that athlete has developed over thousands of painstaking hours. There's not some miracle wisp of wind (luck) that floats the ball into the hoop.

When someone's business starts to take off, people immediately jump on the luck bandwagon. (In this scenario, luck is the exact same thing as overnight success.) Even if a company goes viral at launch, there's still an immense amount of planning, preparation, coordination, and previous successes (and failures) behind the scenes. It's not luck. It's organization and execution.

Look at any best-selling author ever. Not one of them sat down and wrote a book in a week. Got it published the next week. And then sat back and watched as it became a New York Times bestseller. Yet people call authors like Seth Godin, J.K. Rowling, and many others "lucky." Seth and J.K. (we're on a first-name basis because we're author buddies) both got rejected by publishers countless times. Heck, Seth Godin got rejected a staggering 900 times by publishers. 900! And he's lucky? Hell no, he's not. He's a hard-working author who got what he earned from persistence and effort.

I could go on and on and on with examples. Maybe the only people who truly could be deemed lucky are lottery winners. However, the majority of lottery winners (a high majority) have played for years and invested thousands of dollars to win. Many lottery winners have strategies, systems, and complex buying patterns. Sure, there are a few people who've bought a single ticket and won the lottery, but that's unbelievably rare.

Luck has this amazing ability to show up after all the hard work has been put in, and oftentimes, after someone has lost hope that their effort will pay off. I believe that the only time so-called luck shows up is after you've gone far enough in whatever you're working on that you deserve recognition on some level.

That's exactly what luck is to me: recognition of hard work.

For me, this came on November 3, 2012, when I launched BuyMyLastName and asked the world to bid on my last name. In the first 24 hours the bidding hit more than $30,000. A lot of people called that luck. LUCK? I'd been working 14-16 hours every day for the previous four years with IWearYourShirt to build a following and a community that gained attention in the media. Luck didn't have anything to do with it. About 5,000 hours of effort and the balls to put a crazy idea out into the world--that's what made the difference.

The illusion of luck can consume you if you're not careful. If you buy into it, you'll end up sitting idly on the sidelines, while the dedicated, hustling, hard-working people pass you by on their road to success. It's like Coleman Cox said in 1922:

"I am a great believer in luck. The harder I work, the more of it I seem to have."

Don't sit around waiting for the luck train to show up. Luck is for leprechauns and cereals with marshmallows in them. For the rest of us, it's just hard work, patience, and persistence that will get us to our dreams.

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We're not big on setting resolutions only in January at Pluralsight. We believe it's important to strive for excellence year-round, rather than just once a year. That said, there's value in using the year's starter months to reassess your current skill sets and identify areas for improvement, growth, and learning.

Technology is one area that no one in any industry can afford to grow complacent about--tech is changing so quickly that skills you mastered last year may already be outdated. In such a quickly evolving industry, information decays at a rate of 30 percent a year, according to Research in Labor Economics, rendering nearly a third of last year's tech-related knowledge irrelevant.

But don't panic--there's a solution. Staying up-to-date with emergent technologies and trends--as well as the skills needed to master them--will help you offset the lightning-fast pace of skills disruption and keep you ahead of the curve. Continuous learning is the key to maintaining an ongoing competitive advantage, both for individuals and organizations.

On that note, here are the top six tech skills that Pluralsight has identified as not just "nice-to-know," but "need to know," in 2015:

1. Coding.

As I've written recently, coding is the number-one skill in demand today worldwide. Although coding and computer science are still marginalized in the K-12 education system, it's clear that the ability to code has become as important as other basic forms of literacy like reading and math. Fortunately, no matter what your age or current comfort level with technology, there are ways to pick up intro coding skills--and many of them are free. Start with Code School, which provides interactive learn-to-code challenges along with entertaining video instruction, or Hour of Code, which offers a free one-hour coding tutorial that's available in over 30 languages.

2. Big data.

According to Forbes, big data will continue to grow in 2015, due in part to the rise of the Internet of Things, which has the power to embed technology in practically anything. As ever-larger volumes of data are created, it's vital to know how to collect and analyze that data--particularly when it's related to customer preferences and business processes. No matter what industry you're in, you'll miss out on key marketing and decision-making opportunities by ignoring big data. You can brush up on big data concepts, technologies, and vendors with these courses.

3. Cloud computing.

TechRadar reported this month that 2015 will be the year that the cloud becomes the "new normal." The reason, writes Mark Barrenechea, CEO of OpenText, is that costs can be slashed as much as 90 percent through digitization of information-intensive processes. Barrenechea predicts that by year-end, we'll see "a world of hybrid deployments in which some information and applications reside in the cloud and the remainder resides on-premise." Learning to utilize the cloud's flexible power can improve everything from your data security to your collaboration ability. Learn cloud-computing basics with this hour-long online course, which you can view in full with a free trial from Pluralsight, or try this free intro course on the topic from ALISON.

4. Mobile.

As Six Dimensions states, "If you don't have a mobile strategy, you don't have a future strategy." This has never been truer than in 2015, the year in which The Guardian predicts an increasing number of companies will learn how to mobilize their revenue-generating processes, like making purchases and depositing checks. This is also the year that we'll hit critical mass with the fusion of mobile and cloud computing, according to Forbes. That means many more centrally coordinated apps will be usable on multiple devices. Here's a list of beginner-level courses related to mobile technology from Pluralsight, as well as options for mobile apps courses from Lynda.com.

5. Data visualization.

Data keeps multiplying, which means whatever message you hope to communicate online must find increasingly creative ways to break through the noise. That's where data visualization comes in, which involves using a visual representation of the data to discover new information and breakthroughs. Creative Bloq notes that this technique can reveal details that poring through dry data can't. Fortunately, you don't have to be a web designer or developer to create compelling infographics. Here's a list of 10 free tools you can use to visually enhance your data.

6. UX design skills.

User experience (UX) designers consider the end user's ease of use, efficiency, and general experience of interfacing with a system (such as a website or application). Smashing Magazine notes that while user experience has long been important, it has become more so recently in relation to the diverse ways that users can now access websites, including mobile and apps. "The more complex the system, the more involved will the planning and architecture have to be for it," writes Jacob Gube. But it's not just professional designers who can benefit from understanding UX design--anyone can. Check out this animated video from UXmastery on "How to Get Started in UX Design."

These six tech trends are reshaping the way businesses in every industry function internally and connect with their customers. Get smart in these areas, and you won't have to worry about being left behind--at least not this year.

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With the advent of text messages, emails, and other technology-based forms of communication, the way in which we--and our employees--read has more to do with both individual and business success than ever before. Do you read every word and pay close attention to the details and nuances, or do you fly through the information in front of you for the main idea? See what your reading style says about your chances for success.

Speed Reader. You blow through emails and pride yourself on your rapid response time--no one is faster than you. Sure, but have you ever gone back and double-checked to make sure you have not let any of the email's specific points fall through the cracks? Rapid readers may get through information quickly, but they often miss important details in their "read with speed" technique. The real estate agent representing the sellers of a property a friend of mine was buying surely thought she did well by her clients when she drove their property into a bidding war, but her rapid response style of reading cost her clients $25,000 when she did not carefully read the offer contained in my friend's agent's email and transmitted the wrong figure to them.

Skimmer. Your eyes skip a word here and there, so your email exchanges have some back and forth, but you eventually get done what needs doing. Chances are, your contacts and colleagues view you like they would a C student. You frustrate them with your hit or miss attitude, so you are not likely to inspire enough confidence to win a new deal or get a raise or promotion. Contacts will end up bypassing you when possible and relegate you to the pile of last resorts. When I recently reached out to our health insurance broker, she did the opposite of what I asked in my email, and ended up costing herself (and me!) a lot of time and hassle that could have been avoided if she had read my request as it was written in the initial email. In the process, she made sure that when it comes time to renew our policy, I will go directly to the health insurance company itself and cut her out.

Scrutinizer. Read, reflect, respond. You take the time to read an email in its entirety and then send one succinct reply. It takes a bit longer than you would like sometimes, but being thorough minimizes the clutter in your inbox, helps you stay organized, and ultimately shows the person on the other side of the communication that he can trust you with his business. A prospective customer recently sent me a list of questions about our products, and I carefully answered each point with a clear explanation and concise technical information about our products. A week later, the customer placed a large order and told me that he had chosen our company because, unlike our competitors, I was the only person who had addressed every concern he had raised, so he felt comfortable giving us his business.

Don't let your reading strategy sink your chances at success. If you want colleagues, contacts, and customers to feel they are in good hands with you, slow down, stop scanning, and start reading like your life depends on it--because professionally speaking, it does.

 

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In February, Dave Asprey will cut the ribbon on his first-ever Bulletproof café. After nearly five years, it seems like a logical step for a guy whose butter-infused coffee inspired a cult following. Read on for the story of how Asprey went from experimenting with "biohacking" his own body to building a thriving business. (And check out more stories in our Built From Passion series.)

Where the Idea Came From 

At 20, Dave Asprey was depressed, overweight, and eating to cope with his emotions, which veered from clear and decisive to stricken with fear. After buying disability insurance, "because I got to the point where I wouldn't hire myself," he told Inc. last summer, the former project manager and software entrepreneur became obsessed with his health, from the quality and duration of his sleep to the fat content of foods he consumed. 

The more he studied himself, the more he realized he wasn't after a quick pick-me-up but the feeling of being on, all the time. At a friend's suggestion, he began taking so-called smart drugs--a broad term for compounds that heighten cognition--and he says then his hazy world came into focus. After shedding 50 pounds in three months, "I fired my doctor and started taking smart drugs without supervision," he said. He went on to lose 50 more. 

Asprey, who is 41 and lives in the Bay Area, spent 15 years and more than $300,000 to "hack" his biology. He claims he upgraded his brain by more than 20 IQ points and lowered his biological age while learning to sleep more efficiently. He says that learning to do these seemingly impossible things has turned him into a better entrepreneur, husband, and father. This premise became the foundation for Bulletproof Executive, the self-funded performance-coaching company Asprey started in 2010. 

Experimenting with smart drugs eventually led Asprey to toy with that most quotidian of energy boosters--coffee. In 2009, he first posted a recipe for Bulletproof coffee, the coffee and butter beverage that he now says was key to his transformation. By 2012 he began selling Bulletproof-branded low-mold coffee beans online. (Toxins from mold are "performance-robbing," he told the Times.) Soon he added supplements like Brain Octane (his own medium-chain triglyceride oil, an easily digestible fat). Since the Food and Drug Administration doesn't review supplements, Asprey continues to roll out his own; the latest, called Unfair Advantage, is intended to grow mitochondria--i.e., cells in the muscles and brain--in order to slow down the process of aging. 

How the Business Took Off 

As word got around, Bulletproof coffee gained a cult following. It became popular among tech types in Silicon Valley, New York City, and Seattle, and won over celebrities such as music producer Rick Rubin, who introduced the drink to British singer Ed Sheeran, and Dr. Frank Lipman, an integrative doctor who treats Gwyneth Paltrow. The 450-calorie drink is ideal for "mind clarity and a bit of pep," Lipman told the Times.

Making the coffee is simple: You start with some low-mold coffee beans; add at least two tablespoons of unsalted butter (grassfed, which is higher in omega-3s and vitamins); and dump in one to two tablespoons of MCT oil. Put the whole thing in a blender and mix until smooth. Your energy levels will go through the roof, Asprey says, and your hunger will fly out the window. 

Now, nearly five years after its launch, Bulletproof Executive is a 20-person company endorsing the biohacking lifestyle (the company declined to provide revenue numbers). Last year, the website drew some six million unique visitors, and 11 million people have downloaded Asprey's health podcast on iTunes. His book, The Bulletproof Diet: Lose up to a Pound a Day, Reclaim Energy and Focus, Upgrade Your Life, was published in January. The Bulletproof shop and cafés are up next. 

After running a "quantitative analysis" to see where Bulletproof coffee was most popular, Asprey settled on Los Angeles for his first standalone café, which he says will be anything but a regular coffee shop. Noting he has "several of the early people from the Starbucks team" on board, the focus will be on getting customers to try the coffee. "The idea is that people still say, 'Butter in coffee?' and there's a disbelief that it can taste as good as it does or make you feel the way it does," he says. Clearly, he wants to convert them. 

"It's an experience; it's more than just coffee," Asprey continues. "We're building the whole store to have the Bulletproof principles in mind as we go through the day." This means lighting that's compatible with circadian rhythms, a Whole Body Vibration platform (like astronauts use to strengthen muscles on missions), and a small seating area where furniture and flooring "connect to the earth."

"It's the indoor equivalent of being outdoors in the park with bare feet," Asprey says proudly. "Studies have shown there are reductions in inflammation and stress when people are able to discharge and walk around." 

The coffee shop is the biggest sign Asprey thinks this is more than a fad. When asked why, he offers this anecdote: "Last night, I did a book signing in New York City, and a guy in the front row said, 'I've been drinking Bulletproof coffee every day for a year and a half. I've lost 50 pounds and started two companies.' Feeling this way isn't a fad," he says bluntly. "Once you do this, it's priceless to have your brain work all day and not have food cravings all day."

But how do you grow a business nontechie types may view skeptically? To hear Asprey tell it, you sell what the coffee does for you instead of the coffee (though that should taste great, too). "I care about the person coming in even more," Asprey says, contrasting his approach to other roasters like Stumptown Coffee, "not the estate or where the beans are grown." 

This year, Asprey plans to open two or three shops, gather data on their performance, and then "go substantially faster after we know what's there." The first store will be funded internally, and over time he'll expand the roast profiles of the coffee, in addition to brewing methods. "We want something that tastes creamy and delicious," he says of the drinks, whose prices will compare to Starbucks'. "We're still working on the menu and testing things." 

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Whether you're negotiating the price of a massive contract, or a salary raise that comes with a new position, negotiating skills are essential in the business world. If you're unable to negotiate fairly, logically, and persuasively, you could jeopardize your career, or at least miss out on significant opportunities as a result.

When trying to argue persuasively, participants sometimes rely on logical fallacies, or illogical arguments that seem rational at first glance, to prove their points. It's critical to avoid the emergence of such fallacies, as they can immediately weaken your argument. Likewise, it's important to observe the other party's arguments carefully, and point out any fallacies that may form the crux of his/her argument.

The key to most successful negotiations is planning, and you can avoid the pitfalls of logical fallacies by brainstorming about what possible fallacies could come up during negotiations. Preparation allows you to chart a course for your position, plan for possible rebuttals, consider possible alternatives and compromises, and determine the consequences of the negotiation's outcome. Seeing ahead this far should give you the opportunity to analyze your own argument for any potential weaknesses, and look for potential weak points in the other party's argumentative course.

As you prepare for the negotiation, keep the following dangerous logical fallacies in the back of your mind.

1. Straw man argument.

A straw man argument is an instance of one party misquoting or deliberately inventing a false version of another party's argument in an effort to make their own argument seem more appealing. For example, let's say your potential client claims that they can't engage in your services because they don't have enough available funds. You distort that argument by saying, "You say you don't think our services are worth the money, but I can prove objectively that we'll increase your ROI."

This is a straw man argument, because the argument you're trying to counter is not the same argument they initially presented. While the two arguments (real and distorted) are somewhat similar, you aren't actually addressing the point at hand. This could weaken your position or make the other party frustrated.

2. Appeal to consequences.

This type of fallacy is usually a sophisticated form of appealing to emotion, but sometimes it just cuts an important argumentative corner. Appealing to consequences is a way of asserting that an idea is true by arguing that the consequences of the idea's not being true are undesirable. A traditional example of this is arguing that free will has to exist because if it didn't life would have no point.

You may find yourself stumbling into this type of logical fallacy in a business negotiation. For example, if you're trying to negotiate an increased rate to your customer, you could say, "We are responsible for keeping your sales up. If we weren't, we wouldn't be in business." You can make the claim that you are responsible for their increased sales, but you need to back that argument up with objective data--not a hypothetical argument of what would happen if you weren't.

3. Ad hominem.

Ad hominem is a type of fallacy that involves attacking another person's character rather than his/her argument. You see this type of fallacy often in the political circuit; rather than diving into the logistics of the issue at hand, one candidate will accuse the other of being a liar.

While you wouldn't dare make such an obvious attack in the business world, this logical fallacy does have a tendency to pop up from time to time during negotiations. Let's say you're a candidate for a promotion, and the opposing candidate has argued that he is better educated than you. It's a logical fallacy if you try and refute this argument by saying something like "he probably didn't study as hard as I did." Instead, opt to argue that your experience means more than education, or find some other way to overcome the argument without undercutting the opposing party's character.

4. Slippery slope.

You see the slippery slope fallacy all the time during political debates. One person argues against the proposition of a new law or regulation simply because there's a chance that it could lead to more significant laws or regulations in the future.

Put this into a business perspective. Let's say you want your employee to take on a new responsibility, and he/she is resistant. It's a logical fallacy if he/she resists because he/she is afraid that by saying yes to this new responsibility, it will open the door to many new unwanted responsibilities. It's not logical because the argument is for only one additional responsibility, and the future is entirely hypothetical.

5. Correlation equals causation.

This argument is an especially tempting trap to fall into. Correlation is an observation that one action was taken and one result was obtained. It doesn't necessarily prove that the action was what caused the result; arguing that it did is a logical fallacy.

For example, if you're negotiating for a pay raise, it's illogical to argue that an increase in productivity was due solely to your own efforts. Let's say you're in marketing and your company's social media following increased since the time of your last evaluation. You can't tie your performance to those increased metrics unless you have a causal link. Otherwise, they could easily be attributed to a new company announcement, or an outlier in your data.

6. False dilemma.

The false dilemma fallacy starts with an assumption that there are only two possible answers to a solution, and those possibilities are at extreme ends of the spectrum. For example, if a co-worker is arguing against one of your plans for a given project and you argue, "You're either on board with this, or you're trying to sabotage the project," you've immediately created a false dilemma. The world is seldom black and white, and in this particular example, it's entirely possible that the co-worker is interested in the idea but is only trying to raise some possible concerns. Don't assume there are only two options for any scenario.

7. Red herring.

In detective stories, a red herring is a clue intended to lead the audience to one conclusion while the correct conclusion is different. In the context of negotiation, a red herring is a way of manipulating an argument instead of trying to address it. For example, if you and your boss are negotiating a pay raise and the subject of company budget comes up, it's a red herring if you keep changing the argument to the strength of your performance. You may have more leverage with performance than with budgetary concerns, but if you aren't addressing the budgetary argument, you're approaching the argument illogically.

Logical fallacies are a kind of poison that can infect an otherwise valid, valuable argument and render it completely useless. If you can spot and identify any in the other party's persuasive argument, you'll have the upper hand in crushing their argument totally. Likewise, you'll have to pay attention and keep them from encroaching on your own persuasive words. Doing so will put you in a better position, and strengthen your arguments.

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For as long as I can remember, the saying, "you just got lucky" or "that person is so lucky" has always made me cringe. I've never believed in luck--let me explain why.

Everything that happens in life can be traced back to some amount of effort. Or, in many cases, it's a boatload of effort.

When someone hits the game-winning 3-pointer in basketball, it's not luck that makes the shot go in. It's the 500 3-pointers that athlete has shot every day for months or years. It's the muscle memory that athlete has developed over thousands of painstaking hours. There's not some miracle wisp of wind (luck) that floats the ball into the hoop.

When someone's business starts to take off, people immediately jump on the luck bandwagon. (In this scenario, luck is the exact same thing as overnight success.) Even if a company goes viral at launch, there's still an immense amount of planning, preparation, coordination, and previous successes (and failures) behind the scenes. It's not luck. It's organization and execution.

Look at any best-selling author ever. Not one of them sat down and wrote a book in a week. Got it published the next week. And then sat back and watched as it became a New York Times bestseller. Yet people call authors like Seth Godin, J.K. Rowling, and many others "lucky." Seth and J.K. (we're on a first-name basis because we're author buddies) both got rejected by publishers countless times. Heck, Seth Godin got rejected a staggering 900 times by publishers. 900! And he's lucky? Hell no, he's not. He's a hard-working author who got what he earned from persistence and effort.

I could go on and on and on with examples. Maybe the only people who truly could be deemed lucky are lottery winners. However, the majority of lottery winners (a high majority) have played for years and invested thousands of dollars to win. Many lottery winners have strategies, systems, and complex buying patterns. Sure, there are a few people who've bought a single ticket and won the lottery, but that's unbelievably rare.

Luck has this amazing ability to show up after all the hard work has been put in, and oftentimes, after someone has lost hope that their effort will pay off. I believe that the only time so-called luck shows up is after you've gone far enough in whatever you're working on that you deserve recognition on some level.

That's exactly what luck is to me: recognition of hard work.

For me, this came on November 3, 2012, when I launched BuyMyLastName and asked the world to bid on my last name. In the first 24 hours the bidding hit more than $30,000. A lot of people called that luck. LUCK? I'd been working 14-16 hours every day for the previous four years with IWearYourShirt to build a following and a community that gained attention in the media. Luck didn't have anything to do with it. About 5,000 hours of effort and the balls to put a crazy idea out into the world--that's what made the difference.

The illusion of luck can consume you if you're not careful. If you buy into it, you'll end up sitting idly on the sidelines, while the dedicated, hustling, hard-working people pass you by on their road to success. It's like Coleman Cox said in 1922:

"I am a great believer in luck. The harder I work, the more of it I seem to have."

Don't sit around waiting for the luck train to show up. Luck is for leprechauns and cereals with marshmallows in them. For the rest of us, it's just hard work, patience, and persistence that will get us to our dreams.

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We're not big on setting resolutions only in January at Pluralsight. We believe it's important to strive for excellence year-round, rather than just once a year. That said, there's value in using the year's starter months to reassess your current skill sets and identify areas for improvement, growth, and learning.

Technology is one area that no one in any industry can afford to grow complacent about--tech is changing so quickly that skills you mastered last year may already be outdated. In such a quickly evolving industry, information decays at a rate of 30 percent a year, according to Research in Labor Economics, rendering nearly a third of last year's tech-related knowledge irrelevant.

But don't panic--there's a solution. Staying up-to-date with emergent technologies and trends--as well as the skills needed to master them--will help you offset the lightning-fast pace of skills disruption and keep you ahead of the curve. Continuous learning is the key to maintaining an ongoing competitive advantage, both for individuals and organizations.

On that note, here are the top six tech skills that Pluralsight has identified as not just "nice-to-know," but "need to know," in 2015:

1. Coding.

As I've written recently, coding is the number-one skill in demand today worldwide. Although coding and computer science are still marginalized in the K-12 education system, it's clear that the ability to code has become as important as other basic forms of literacy like reading and math. Fortunately, no matter what your age or current comfort level with technology, there are ways to pick up intro coding skills--and many of them are free. Start with Code School, which provides interactive learn-to-code challenges along with entertaining video instruction, or Hour of Code, which offers a free one-hour coding tutorial that's available in over 30 languages.

2. Big data.

According to Forbes, big data will continue to grow in 2015, due in part to the rise of the Internet of Things, which has the power to embed technology in practically anything. As ever-larger volumes of data are created, it's vital to know how to collect and analyze that data--particularly when it's related to customer preferences and business processes. No matter what industry you're in, you'll miss out on key marketing and decision-making opportunities by ignoring big data. You can brush up on big data concepts, technologies, and vendors with these courses.

3. Cloud computing.

TechRadar reported this month that 2015 will be the year that the cloud becomes the "new normal." The reason, writes Mark Barrenechea, CEO of OpenText, is that costs can be slashed as much as 90 percent through digitization of information-intensive processes. Barrenechea predicts that by year-end, we'll see "a world of hybrid deployments in which some information and applications reside in the cloud and the remainder resides on-premise." Learning to utilize the cloud's flexible power can improve everything from your data security to your collaboration ability. Learn cloud-computing basics with this hour-long online course, which you can view in full with a free trial from Pluralsight, or try this free intro course on the topic from ALISON.

4. Mobile.

As Six Dimensions states, "If you don't have a mobile strategy, you don't have a future strategy." This has never been truer than in 2015, the year in which The Guardian predicts an increasing number of companies will learn how to mobilize their revenue-generating processes, like making purchases and depositing checks. This is also the year that we'll hit critical mass with the fusion of mobile and cloud computing, according to Forbes. That means many more centrally coordinated apps will be usable on multiple devices. Here's a list of beginner-level courses related to mobile technology from Pluralsight, as well as options for mobile apps courses from Lynda.com.

5. Data visualization.

Data keeps multiplying, which means whatever message you hope to communicate online must find increasingly creative ways to break through the noise. That's where data visualization comes in, which involves using a visual representation of the data to discover new information and breakthroughs. Creative Bloq notes that this technique can reveal details that poring through dry data can't. Fortunately, you don't have to be a web designer or developer to create compelling infographics. Here's a list of 10 free tools you can use to visually enhance your data.

6. UX design skills.

User experience (UX) designers consider the end user's ease of use, efficiency, and general experience of interfacing with a system (such as a website or application). Smashing Magazine notes that while user experience has long been important, it has become more so recently in relation to the diverse ways that users can now access websites, including mobile and apps. "The more complex the system, the more involved will the planning and architecture have to be for it," writes Jacob Gube. But it's not just professional designers who can benefit from understanding UX design--anyone can. Check out this animated video from UXmastery on "How to Get Started in UX Design."

These six tech trends are reshaping the way businesses in every industry function internally and connect with their customers. Get smart in these areas, and you won't have to worry about being left behind--at least not this year.

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Zingerman's Delicatessan in Ann Arbor, Michigan grew from a small enterprise started in 1982 into Zingerman's Community of Businesses—eight different businesses (including a mail order company and a business consultancy), with 17 managing partners, 500 employees, and revenue of $37 million a year in thirty years. Founder Ari Weinzweig explains how visioning—creating a picture of what success will be at a particular time in the future—helped take his company to where it is today.

Because visioning can be used for just about anything, it's important to start by being clear about what you're working on. Is it a vision for your organization overall? Or just for a particular piece? For today's shift? Or your retirement? We do visions for all of the above and everything in between.

How far out should you look? There's no right answer, but as a general principle, visioning works best if you go far out enough to get beyond present-day problems but not so far out that you have no sense at all of actually getting there. We have a long-term organizational vision that's set in 2020. Most organizational visions will probably be set somewhere from two to 10 years out—but five is a typical place to start.

Throw down a list of past positive achievements. You might include specific contributions that you or your colleagues have made to past successes, or skills, techniques, and resources that could be assets in achieving your vision. Anything good that comes to mind is fine. It shouldn't take more than 10 minutes. The idea is just to create a base of positive energy and high-quality experiences on which you can build for future success. The more people focus on the positives, the more likely you are to attain the greatness you envision.

Writing a vision is hugely important. Before you start writing, here are a few technical tips. If you follow them, the work will be way better: · Put something wild out there. Get past the 59 reasons why it won't work. · Put down what pours out, not what other people want to see. · Write as if your vision has already happened. · Keep writing for 15 to 30 minutes, regardless of how silly you sound. · Build your passions into what you write. Don't write a vision that you aren't a part of.

When you're ready to revise, read your draft through from start to finish. Don't erase anything. You'll have plenty of opportunity to edit the content and the language. As you read through, keep in the back of your mind: Does this sound inspiring? Do I get excited when I'm reading it? Stay away from vague statements like "We're busier than ever"; instead, use real sales numbers that mean something. What are the key financial numbers that define success for you? Sales levels? Salary? Savings? Status?

If you want, you can take this second draft and make additional adjustments. But at some point, you had better get your butt in gear and move on to Step 7. Note that there is no 6D. If there were, the D would stand for Done. More than four drafts, and I think you're headed down the long and unrewarding road of "I've been working on a vision for the past few years, but I still don't have it finished."

This is where you let the cat out of the bag and get input from people you trust and respect. Whom should you show it to? Folks who have experience, insight, and expertise relevant to your vision. Inevitably, some of these advisers will shift away from talking about the vision into a discussion of the action steps that will have to be in a strategic plan. Just listen carefully, and take notes—some of those ideas might come in handy later.

Finally, it's time to share the vision with everyone who will be involved in implementing it. When you roll out your vision to the bigger group, it's inevitable that people will ask questions about how you intend to achieve the vision. They're asking you about the how. The vision, however, is the what. It's totally fine if you don't know how you're going to get there. Later, you will figure out the how. --Ari Weinzweig

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A great place to live can also be a great place to start a business.

The financial blog 24/7 Wall St. recently ranked the 50 best cities to live. They used Census Bureau data for 550 cities, including statistics on employment growth, educational attainment and housing affordability to determine which cities are at the top of the heap.

Here are the top 10 cities to live (and also start a business): --Graham Rapier

Median income: $100,478 2013 Unemployment rate: 6.50% Median home value: $337,900 Average commute: 30.3 minutes

The 10th best city to live in is a 30-minute commute from downtown Atlanta. The median household income in Johns Creek is over $100,000 annually, much higher than the national average of $51,371. The median home value also far exceeds the national average, at $336,900. Johns Creek is unique to the list in that it lacks a single college, even though 65 percent of its residents are college educated.

Median income: $113,683 2013 Unemployment rate: 2013: 5.30% Median home value: $277,900 Average commute: 25.9 minutes

While Austin may be the flagship Texas city for startups, another Texas town makes 9th on the list. Flower Mound, located just north of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, boasts an average household income of $113,683. Texas' unemployment rate is much lower than the national average, too. The small city of just 68,000 residents is rapidly growing though, home prices increased by 8.5 percent from 2010 to 2012.

Median income: $86,151 2013 Unemployment rate: 4.80% Median home value: $298,200 Average commute: 22.1 minutes

Despite an average home price of almost $300,000, taxes in Cary are well below average, at less than 1 percent of typical home values. The Cary-Raleigh metropolitan area is home to multiple prestigious universities, including Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 24/7 Wall St. adds that Cary has attracted a large number of new businesses and young entrepreneurs in recent years.

Median income: $81,800 2013 Unemployment rate: 7.00% Median home value: $203,940000 Average commute: 23.5 minutes

The Detroit metropolitan area is becoming a hotbed for entrepreneurs. In the years since its economic decline, housing prices are at an all time low. Troy students performed above the Michigan statewide average on standardized tests. In 2011, Troy was ranked as the safest city in Michigan thanks to its low crime rates.

Median income: $96,278 2013 Unemployment rate: 4.70% Median home value: $630,400 Average commute: 25.9 minutes

This year, the Southern California city placed ninth on Inc.'s list of the top 10 cities for fast-growth businesses . The median income of Irvine is just shy of $100,000 annually. Despite this higher than average income, homes in Irvine well exceed an average California price at over $630,000. Irvine is also home to many top universities including Pepperdine, University of California at Irvine and Concordia University.

Median income: $68,169 2013 Unemployment rate: 7.20% Median home value: $360,900 Average commute: 28.4 minutes

The town of Evanston, Illinois is almost synonymous with Northwestern University, one of the top schools in the country. Perhaps related to this, over two-thirds of Evanston residents posses a college degree. Cook County, where Evanston is located in, has 49 museums and 192 libraries in 2012, according to 24/7 Wall St.

Median income: :$112,665 2013 Unemployment rate: 3.70% Median home value: $694,300 Average commute: 28.9 minutes

As its name suggests, life in Pleasanton California is indeed very pleasant. The median household income in Pleasanton is $112,665--a good thing considering home prices in Pleasanton are higher than all cities reviewed, except for six. The unemployment rate was just 3.7 percent last year, much lower than the national average.

Median income: $91,422 2013 Unemployment rate: 5.00% Median home value: $749,000 Average commute: 20.46 minutes

Mountain View is situated right in the heart of Silicon Valley, the mecca of entrepreneurship. As such, it's home to many high-tech companies such as Google, Mozilla and Symantec. Santa Clara County, where Mountain View is located, had more than 3,500 restaurants and 216 gyms in 2012. An added inducement? The San Francisco 49ers recently moved to a new stadium nearby.

Median income: $91,449 2013 Unemployment rate: 4.70% Median home value: $507,600 Average commute: 22.6 minutes

Bellevue is the wealthiest of all communities in Washington when measured by per capita income. Bellevue is situated next door to Redmond, the home of tech giants like Microsoft and Nintendo. Aerospace giant Boeing employs many of the town's residents. Between 2011 and 2013, employment in Bellevue grew by 5 percent.

Median household income: $125,642
 2013 Unemployment rate: 4.80%
 Median home value: $689,900
 Average commute: 26.4 minutes

24/7 Wall St.'s best city to live in is Newton, a suburb of one of the nation's biggest startup hubs, Boston. The site says crime rates were just a fraction of national figures in 2012. And while it's expensive to live in Newton, the median income (at $125,000) is higher than any other large city reviewed. And besides excellent schools, there are plenty of other attractions including 24 museums and three ski resorts.

- Top 10 Cities for Fast-Growth Companies - The Best Cities for Small Business (Infographic) - The 2014 Inc. 5000

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A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. A method for "imgid" does not exist. ) [sort] => ) ) ) Article Object ( [inc_foreignid] => 0 [inc_title] => The Entrepreneurs of the Decade: 2000 to 2009 [inc_headline_prefix] => [inc_headline] => The Entrepreneurs of the Decade: 2000 to 2009 [inc_homepage_headline] => [inc_homepage_headline_ab_test] => [inc_lander_headline] => [inc_sharing_headline] => [inc_twitter_headline] => [inc_column_name_override] => [inc_reference_name] => [inc_custom_byline] => [inc_typid] => 20 [inc_autid] => [inc_deck] => They have changed the way we buy things, find information, and communicate. A look at the most influential and inspiring entrepreneurs of the past 10 years. 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Yes, we know it's a predictable choice. But when you think about the iPod, the iPhone, iTunes, and the App Store, you realize that any one of these breakthrough ideas would be enough to propel an entrepreneur onto a list of the decade's top achievers. The fact that Jobs led the company that developed all of them—and built the nation's coolest retail outfit in his spare time—is truly remarkable.

He built the first great brand of the Internet era and set the standards by which other online retailers are measured. Then he guided his company to profitability, a feat some doubted was possible. And as if to say that pioneering e-commerce was not enough of a legacy for either himself or for Amazon, Jeff Bezos set his sights on changing the very way that we read, by developing the Kindle.

If the great story of the decade is the rise of Chinese capitalism--and the opportunities and perils that China's economic power presents for American businesses--then Jack Ma is a protagonist for our age. Alibaba.com, the company he started in China in 1999, helps to connect thousands of businesses at every point in the global supply chain with one another. In all of these small transactions, Ma seems something quite huge. 'I want to create one million jobs, change China's social and economic environment, and make it the largest Internet market in the world,' he told Inc. in 2008.

She's more emblematic of the 1990s than of the 2000s, but remember this: Martha Stewart bet that by not appealing her conviction (for lying to prosecutors, in case you forgot) and by simply getting her five-month prison stretch done with in March 2005, she would minimize the damage to her reputation and quickly get her company back on track. It was a hell of a decision, and it paid off.

Following a series of strategic acquisitions in the 1990s, Mackey led his supermarket chain back to a strategy of—wait for it—organic growth, opening 145 stores worldwide between 2000 and 2009. Critics may complain that the company has strayed far from its wholesome roots but, without Whole Foods, it's hard to imagine many of the decades trends in food, from sustainable fishing to artisanal cheese, taking off as they have. And even as the recession has tightened consumers' budgets, Mackey has led the company to steady revenue growth while avoiding layoffs. So what if he sometimes likes to post things on the Internet?

The award for taking a dead company and breathing new life into it goes to Leslie Blodgett, the CEO of Bare Escentuals. When she took over the mineral-based cosmetics company, it had recently been bought out of foreclosure by a venture capital firm for $160,000. She re-branded the makeup line and added lipsticks and eyeshadow. Then, with no prior TV experience, Blodgett went on QVC and booked $40,000 in sales in just six minutes. 'When people ask me what are the best moments of my life, that has to be one of them," she told Inc. in 2008. Her company, which went public in 2006, is now on track to gross $500 million a year.

He smartly placed his company at the nexus of two of the most important technology trends of the decade: The widespread adoption of customer relationship management systems and the advent of cloud computing. The strategy turned the software world on its head, and propelled Salesforce.com to a strong, post-Sarbanes-Oxley IPO in 2004. With funding in place, the company took off, joining the S&P 500 a few years later and crossing the billion-dollar mark in terms of annual revenue in 2008. Bonus points: In the branding-challenged world of business-to-business software, Benioff's selection of a memorable domain name stands out.

We don't have much more to say than this: When the decade started, he was 15. Today, he is CEO of Facebook, a company that has become an indispensable part of the lives of 350 million users worldwide. And just wait for that IPO.

In July, Hsieh sold Zappos, his online shoe retail company, for $1 billion--at a time when his annual operating income was just north of $20 million and business valuations were generally terrible. But the size of the multiple is almost beside the point. The culture of Zappos has become something of a religion for entrepreneurs. They eagerly study Hsieh's philosophy of customer service. They copy his techniques for interviewing and hiring employees. They brag about exchanging e-mails and tweets with him, and they trade stories about the time they were in Vegas and went on the Zappos tour. As the decade draws to a close, there is no single entrepreneur who is a faster-rising star than Tony Hseih.

He is best known now for the many businesses he's invested in, including Facebook, Yelp, and LinkedIn. But we haven't forgotten that, early in this decade, Theil along with Max Levchin and Elon Musk developed and sold PayPal. The simple, secure online payment system (which is taken for granted today) was not only a great business in its own right; it made e-commerce feasible for hundreds of thousands of start-ups and solo entrepreneurs.

Reed Hastings has weathered more than his fair share of highs (10 million subscribers; Born into Brothels; those smart red envelopes; the million-dollar Netflix prize) and lows (a class-action lawsuit over the phrase "unlimited rentals"; aggressive competition from Wal-Mart and Blockbuster Video; the fact that Netflix's most avid customers are also its least profitable.) Handling each new challenge with aplomb, Hastings has demonstrated an enviable capacity for resilience. 'Being an entrepreneur is about patience and persistence, not the quick buck,' he told Inc. in 2006, 'and everything great is hard and takes a long time.'

Though David Neeleman's board of directors grounded him not long after his upstart airline, JetBlue, experienced a major customer service breakdown, he remains one of the decade's most respected entrepreneurs. By building a fresh, new brand in a struggling industry—complete with individual seat-back TVs and tasty blue corn chips—he showed start-ups everywhere the value of taking on entrenched players with creativity and style. Moreover, by speaking openly and candidly about his ouster, he has helped to take (some of) the stigma out of entrepreneurial failure.

'I'd rather be wrong and thriving than right and dead,' the founder of Gawker Media wrote on his blog in July 2009. He was referring to a prediction he had made nine months earlier that, before the recession was over, media companies would experience a decline in advertising revenue of as much as 40 percent. So Denton promptly (and rather dispassionately) shut down several underperforming sites and trimmed his staff. The moves seem to have paid off, assuming Gawker's revenue closely tracks its surging Web traffic. But we're not adding Denton to this list because his business is doing well. We like him for those matter-of-fact, I-told-you-so blog posts and memos. Many, many entrepreneurs believe they can see farther down the road than the rest of us (and many of them can). It's fun to see one of them document what that feels like.

Beginning with the launch of a flagship Manhattan store in March of 2000, the chairman of H&M embarked on a decade of rapid international expansion en route to an $18 billion fortune. His company combined a flair for PR (Karl Lagerfeld, Stella McCartney, and Sonia Rykiel) with an innovative business model (low margins, high volumes, and fast inventory turns). Plus, we're suckers for a family business saga that turns out well: Persson, who inherited H&M from his father in 1989, turned over the reins to his son, Karl-Johan, earlier this year.

Like Cher or Prince (but with flashy punctuation), @Ev and @Biz have become household names by creating Twitter, the addictive microblogging platform that is already changing the way we communicate. Besides fostering a collective penchant for brevity, the site has become an amazing resource for everyone from marketers in Silicon Valley to democratic activists in Tehran. If you're not keeping an eye on the day's trending topics, you're hopelessly misinformed.

Few books this decade were as significant as Thomas Friedman's The World is Flat, the title of which was inspired by the Indian billionaire Nandan Nilekani. Nilekani, who was then serving as CEO of Infosys Technologies, one of the world's top outsourcing companies, told Friedman in an interview that technology and globalization allowed companies in places like India and China to 'level the playing field' of international commerce. The phrase stuck in Friedman's head and, with a little tweaking, became a full-blown mantra. But don't think of Nilekani as merely a literary footnote: Through his work as head of India's National Association of Software and Service Companies, he is promulgating the virtues of entrepreneurship to a nation that is eager to get down to business.

In retrospect, Google's success seems foreordained. But at the beginning of the decade is wasn't at all clear that the search company—founded by two young Stanford grad students—was going to sail through the dot-com bust, put together a blockbuster IPO, rewrite the rules of advertising, and then follow all of that up by diving into businesses ranging from satellite mapping to viral video to e-mail. But as with all things related to Google, the sum seems to be so much larger than the total of its parts. As the journalist John Battelle wrote in his book The Search, entrepreneurs Brin and Page have, in just 10 years, "fundamentally changed the relationship between humanity and knowledge."

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A method for "incid" does not exist. [1] => Problem initializing. A method for "imgid" does not exist. ) [sort] => ) ) ) The Ford Motor Co., 1946, | Inc.com
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The Ford Motor Co., 1946

A quote from 'The Whiz Kids: The Founding Fathers of American Business--and the Legacy They Left Us.'