A graph comparing employer's manatory and voluntary costs in various taxes verus employee's costs in 7 European states.
Europe may call itself unified, but its member nations still have separate tax and social-security structures that contribute to the costs of employing people there. And benefits mandated in some countries are voluntary in others, giving employers room to negotiate.
For every 100 local currency units spent on salary:
Additional employment costs*
Employer's voluntary contribution to benefits
*Includes income tax, employer's and employee's social-security contribution, and employee's mandatory and voluntary contributions to other benefits.
Source: The 1994 Guide to Pensions and Labour Law in Europe, Sedgwick Noble Lowndes, Chicago, April 1994.