Resources is the Inc. guide to more information on subjects in this issue. This information is intended to help our readers; Inc. does not profit from the sale of any of the resources listed.
Readers took issue with Kathy Marshack's conclusion that husband-and-wife teams who run businesses together are less egalitarian than dual-career couples. Yet there are plenty of studies that corroborate Marshack's conclusions. Here's a selected bibliography of articles from periodicals:
"Who's the Boss? Responsibility and Decision Making in Copreneurial Ventures," by L. Ponthieu and H. Caudill (Family Business Review, 1993, Volume 6, Number 1, pages 3-17). The Family Business Review is now published by the Family Firm Institute, in Brookline, Mass. To order a back issue ($21), you can go to the Institute's Web site, call 617-738-1591, or send a fax to 617-738-4883.
"Close Coupling in Work-Family Relationships: Making and Implementing Decisions in a New Family Business and at Home," by A. Wicker and K. Burley (Human Relations, 1991, Volume 44, Number 1, pages 77-92). To order a reprint ($11.50 plus a copyright fee of about $6), call 800-787-7979.
"Working Couples in Small Business," by J. Cox, K. Moore, and P. Van Auken (Journal of Small Business Management, October 1984, pages 24-30). To order a reprint ($11), call UMI at 800-248-0360.
"Fundamentally, there's nothing more central to market economies than the creation of new businesses," declares Paul Reynolds. "And right now we know almost nothing about the start-up process."
Reynolds's Entrepreneurial Research Consortium is scrutinizing that crucial gestation period in which some would-be entrepreneurs succeed in establishing companies while others throw in the towel. The unusual collaborative effort aspires to be to entrepreneurship research what the Hubble Space Telescope is to astronomy: not an isolated inquiry but a gold mine of data to be dissected by a bevy of researchers, each exploring a different question.
Among those burning questions: How many start-up efforts does it take to create one viable business? How do fledgling entrepreneurs use social networks for support? How do successful ones differ from failed ones in terms of personality, income, and demographic profile? How many entrepreneurs devote themselves full-time to the effort? How much time elapses before nascent businesses record their first dollar of revenue or hire their first employee?
"We'll be able to understand this process for the first time," says Bill Gartner of the University of Southern California, one of the researchers who anted up $20,000 to participate in the study. "We don't now, frankly."
For further information on the study, visit the research page at Babson College's Web site.
Obits: Cubs Send Minor-League Owners to the Showers
The National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues' Web site is one-stop shopping for information about minor-league ball. Visitors can read the latest minor-league news, apply for a job, check team standings, and of course, buy team hats. Minor-league sections include detailed listings of management personnel for each team, contact information, and team schedules.
If you're thinking about forming a more perfect union with other small businesses in your area or in your industry, you may find it helpful to dip into The TeamNet Factor, by Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps (John Wiley & Sons, 800-225-5945, 1993, $29.95). At times oppressively jargony--starting with the title--and thin on consistently vivid and relevant examples, the book is useful nonetheless. Chapter 6 provides a helpful primer for small companies, including the best reasons to form a network and advice on how to manage one. Chapter 8, "Quick Start: Getting Your TeamNet to Click," serves as a valuable reminder that networks, like companies, go through phases as they grow. Finally, the last four pages of chapter 11, "Five Good Ways to Fail," handily sum up the perils of such a strategy. There's a Chapter 11 joke in here somewhere.
For those of you struggling with the impossible task of balancing work and family, Nancy Austin recommends the following books:
Balancing Act: How Managers Can Integrate Successful Careers and Fulfilling Personal Lives, by Joan Kofodimos (Jossey-Bass, 800-956-7739, 1993, $27). An absolutely on-point guide, says Austin.
A Dog in Heat Is a Hot Dog: And Other Rules to Live By, by E. Jean Carroll (Pocket Books, 800-223-2336, 1996, $12). Says Austin, "Wonderful, totally charming, very, very funny--perfect when you seek relief from what is such a deadly serious subject."
Body and Soul, by Anita Roddick (Crown Publishing, 800-726-0600, 1991, $16). This is a classic, says Austin. "In case anybody thinks you can approach starting a business or holding a job in a measured, controlled, balanced way--just get this and read almost any page. Nobody ever does anything unless they are lit up with a cause or royally pissed off, as Roddick proves in this indispensable guide."
The Corporate Reference Guide to Work-Family Programs, from the Families and Work Institute (330 Seventh Ave., 14th floor, New York, NY 10001; 212-465-2044). Austin says it's the essential reference for company owners who wonder what their responsibility might be to their employees as far as "balance" is concerned. Its academic tone will be just dry enough to convince skeptics that this is an important, grown-up subject.
For more information on building a brand, check out the " The New You," by Max Carey Jr. (August 1991). Carey stresses the importance of developing brand identity, whether you run a product-based or a service-based company. For some historical context and interesting case histories, try Managing Brand Equity, by David Aaker (Free Press, 800-223-2336, 1991, $29.95). It's a bit on the dry side, but it gives a good overview of brand management. For a somewhat less academic take, there's the classic Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, by Jack Trout and Al Ries (Warner Books, 800-222-6747, 1981, $5.99). Eminently readable, if not downright breezy, this is one of those rare business books that's actually fun to read.
The best single source of information on outsourcing is the Outsourcing Institute, in New York City, which disseminates independent information on the strategic use of outside resources. The institute publishes a quarterly management newsletter, The Source. To subscribe or get other information, call the institute at 800-421-6767.
Also, International Data Corp., in Framingham, Mass., a leading provider of information-technology data, analysis, and consulting, has recently produced 1996 Worldwide Outsourcing Markets and Trends. For a copy, call 800-343-4952.
One consulting firm that specializes in outsourcing is Michael F. Corbett & Associates. It puts on intensive three-day seminars called "The Disciplines of Outsourcing" and distributes Outsourcing: The U.S. Business Revolution, a 400-page review of the history and future direction of outsourcing. Corbett can be reached by E-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone at 914-463-1110.
Few small-business owners will fail to recognize at least some aspect of their entrepreneurial selves in Michael E. Gerber's The E-Myth Revisited (HarperBusiness, 800-331-3761, 1995, $15). The easy-to-read follow-up to Gerber's first book, The E-Myth, illustrates various entrepreneurial personality types and demonstrates how founders of growing companies often destroy their own businesses.
Convinced you should share equity with employees? Call your lawyer first. Then consider adding these legal references to your library: Start-up Companies: Planning, Financing and Operating the Successful Business, by Richard D. Harroch (Law Journal Seminars-Press, 800-888-8300, 1985, updated through 1996, $149), is a two-volume loose-leaf guide designed for both lawyers and entrepreneurs. It's updated twice a year and includes detailed legal guidance covering everything from incorporating your company to issuing stock. It also includes sample forms, such as a restricted stock-purchase agreement for employees. For a simpler legal reference book about documenting key business decisions like issuing stock, check out Taking Care of Your Corporation, Volume 2: Key Corporate Decisions Made Easy, by Anthony Mancuso (Nolo Press, 800-992-6656, 1995, $39.95). It comes with a computer disk of sample forms, such as stock-issuance resolutions. Also, the National Center for Employee Ownership, in Oakland, Calif., is coming out with a revised edition of its book Equity Based Compensation Programs. For $35, it gives both legal and practical advice about various types of nonqualified stock plans, such as phantom stock. Call the center at 510-272-9461, or check out its Web site.
Rocking the Ages: the Yankelovich Report on Generational Marketing, by J. Walker Smith and Ann Clurman, will be available in bookstores this month. Or you can order it directly from the publisher (HarperBusiness, 800-242-7737, $25).
If you, like most of us, fear the IRS's wrath (or even its attention), here's the book for you: What the IRS Doesn't Want You to Know: A CPA Reveals the Tricks of the Trade (Villard Books, 800-726-0600, 1997, $13.95), by Martin Kaplan (the CPA) and Naomi Weiss. It's hard to know what's better about this guide (now in an updated and revised third edition): its seemingly endless tips or its truly delightful style. Who wouldn't appreciate a book with chapter titles like "IRS Targets and What to Do If You're One of Them"? Another especially useful section focuses on the 13 biggest misconceptions people have about their tax returns.
How shrewd is Kaplan's advice? Here's one nugget: the most important step taxpayers can take to reduce their audit risk, he claims, is to "remove as much information as possible from your 1040 to another place where the chances of audit are greatly diminished." How? Check out chapter 8.
There's nothing simple about the world of retirement planning at the moment: even finding a good, comprehensive resource is complicated. That's because the best guides became outmoded on January 1, when SIMPLE plans were launched and SARSEPs closed down for anyone who didn't already have a SARSEP in place. Government delays in finalizing paperwork and other requirements should slow down the publication of new and revised editions. So you may have to wait.
In the meantime, if you have or plan to start a 401(k) plan, check out the 401k Provider Directory Small Plan Guide (HR Investment Consultants, 800-462-0628), designed to help business owners whose plans cover 150 or fewer participants. It's a comprehensive comparison-shopping guide that details the fees and services of 45 large mutual funds, insurers, banks, and other 401(k) providers. Although it's a tad pricey at $85, it more than makes up for its cost in potential savings.
There's no doubt that foreign accounts receivable can create hassles. Here are some good ways to minimize them:
How to contact companies, organizations, and individuals mentioned prominently in this issue (some listings have been omitted by request)
Nancy K. Austin, a writer and management consultant, is the coauthor, with Tom Peters, of A Passion for Excellence.
Jeff Bloch is a media trainer based in New York City.
Norm Brodsky is the CEO of CitiStorage, in Brooklyn, N.Y.
Bo Burlingham is the editor of Street Smarts and is an editor at large at Inc.
Christopher Caggiano is a staff writer at Inc.
Ann Clurman, a partner at Yankelovich Partners, has been involved for more than 20 years with the Yankelovich Monitor, an annual survey that tracks American values, lifestyles, and buying motivations.
Jill Andresky Fraser is Inc.'s finance editor.
George Gendron is Inc.'s editor-in-chief.
Stephanie Gruner is a staff writer at Inc.
Phaedra Hise is a staff writer at Inc.
Mike Hofman is a reporter at Inc.
Joshua Macht is an associate editor at Inc. Technology.
Jeffrey L. Seglin is an executive editor at Inc.
J. Walker Smith, a managing partner of Yankelovich Partners, is responsible for Yankelovich Monitor, an annual survey that tracks American values, lifestyles, and buying motivations.
Jerry Useem is an associate editor at Inc.
Edward O. Welles is a senior writer at Inc.
The Inc. Directory Each name is indexed to the first page of the article in which it appears.
ALKON & LEVINE PC, Jeffrey Levine, 29 Crafts St., Newton, MA 02160; 617-969-6630. See article .
AMERICAN EXPRESS TAX AND BUSINESS SERVICES, Bob Basten, IDS Tower 10, T-20/605, Minneapolis, MN 55440; 612-671-9578. See article .
APPALACHIAN LEAGUE, 283 Deerchase Circle, Statesville, NC 28677; 704-873-5300.
JESUS ARGUELLES, Arguelles Business Capital, 445 S. Figueroa St., Suite 2600, Los Angeles, CA 90071; 213-912-2009. See article .
BARTER CORP., Susan Groenwald, 18W100 22nd St., Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181; 630-953-8100. See article .
PATRICE BEAUDOIN, Matterhorn Wood Fire Pizza and Pasta, 6 Walkers Mills Rd., Bethel, ME 04217; 207-824-6836. See article .
BETHEL AREA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, Robin Zinchuk, P.O. Box 439, Bethel, ME 04217; 207-824-2282. See article .
BEVERAGE NETWORK, Russell Hopkins, 4437 Concord Ln., Skokie, IL 60076; 847-673-4614. See article .
BONADIO & CO., Tom Bonadio, One Cambridge Pl., 1850 Winton Rd. South, Rochester, NY 14618; 716-244-2000. See article .
BOWMAN'S ACCOUNTING REPORT, Arthur Bowman, 950 E. Paces Ferry Rd., Suite 2425, Atlanta, GA 30326; 404-264-9977. See article .
CHICAGO CUBS, 1060 W. Addison St., Chicago, IL 60613; 773-404-2827.
CICCO AND ASSOCIATES, John Cicco Jr., 221 Rainprint Sq., Murrysville, PA 15668. See article .
JOHN EVANS, Arthur Andersen, 1345 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10105; 212-708-4000. See article .
EXAM MASTER, Diane Vincent, 500 Ethel Ct., Middletown, DE 19709-9410; 800-572-3627. See article .
SYLVIA FATH, Southwestern Bell, One Bell Center, 11-J-01, St. Louis, MO 63101. See article .
F. DAVID FOWLER, School of Business and Public Management, George Washington University, 710 21st St. NW, Washington, DC 20052; 202-994-6380. See article .
GEORGE INDUSTRIES, George Gering, 4116 Whiteside St., Los Angeles, CA 90063; 213-264-6660. See article .
SUZY HARRINGTON, Roberts' Farm, 8 Emery Rd., Bethel, ME 04217; 207-824-2927. See article .
JOHN BLAIR & ASSOCIATES, John Blair, 100 E. Walton, Chicago, IL 60611; 312-587-8887. See article .
TOM KANE, Worldwide Teachers, 266 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02116; 617-262-5722. See article .
ED KETZ, 203 Beam Bldg., Dept. of Accounting, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-1912; 814-865-6914. See article .
LIFE CORP., John Kirchgeorg, 1776 N. Water St., P.O. Box 3000, Milwaukee, WI 53201-3000; 800-700-0202. See article .
SUSAN M. LOVE, P.O. Box 846, Pacific Palisades, CA 90272; 310-230-1712. See article .
MAD RIVER TRADERS, Marc Johnson, P.O. Box 567, Stowe, VT 05672; 203-661-4105. See article .
MAINE LINE PRODUCTS, Rick Whitney, P.O. Box 356, Bethel, ME 04217; 800-874-0484. See article .
MAX RACKS, Sylvie Anapol, 102 W. 75th St., Suite One, New York, NY 10023; 212-873-4200. See article .
MCCARTY ARCHITECTS, Richard McCarty, P.O. Box 440, Tupelo, MS 38802. See article .
MEDICALOGIC, Mark Leavitt, 15400 NW Greenbrier Pkwy., Beaverton, OR 97006; 503-531-7000. See article .
MID-CONTINENT AGENCIES, Les Kirschbaum, 3701 W. Algonquin Rd., Suite 800, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008; 800-374-2000. See article .
MINOR'S LANDSCAPE SERVICES, David Minor, 2550 Berner St., Fort Worth, TX 76111; 817-740-9792. See article .
MULLEN ADVERTISING, Jim Mullen, 36 Essex St., Wenham, MA 01984; 508-468-1155. See article .
BOB NASON, Grant Thornton, Prudential Plaza, 130 E. Randolph St., Chicago, IL 60601-6050; 312-856-0001. See article .
NEW WORLD TEACHERS, Neville Fridge, 605 Market St., Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94105; 415-546-5200. See article .
JAY NISBERG, 9 Chipmunk Ln., Ridgefield, CT 06877; 860-350-1664. See article .
CHRISTOPHER NOTLEY, International TEFL Certificate, Spanielova 1292, 163 00 Prague 6 - Repy II, Czech Republic; (42 2) 301 9784. See article .
NUWAY, John Marino, 733 Third Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10017, 212-692-0172. See article .
PUBLIC ACCOUNTING REPORT, Suzanne Verity, 590 Dutch Valley Rd. NE, P.O. Box 13729, Atlanta, GA 30324-0729; 404-881-1141. See article .
R.C. STRICKLAND, Robert Strickland, 2900 Westinghouse Blvd., Suite 100, Charlotte, NC 28273; 704-588-1908. See article .
SALAMANDER RESTAURANT, Stan Frankenthaler, One Athenaeum St., Cambridge, MA 02142; 617-225-2121. See article .
SCHIEFFELIN & SOMERSET, Patrick Morley-Fletcher, 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016; 212-251-8200. See article .
SWISS-AMERICAN, Jerry Weil, 4245 Papin St., St. Louis, MO 63110; 800-325-8150. See article .
TROUT & PARTNERS, Jack Trout, 2 Pickwick Plaza, Greenwich, CT 06830; 203-622-4312. See article .
URBAN JUICE & SODA, Peter van Stolk, 2055 Boundary Rd., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V5M 3Z1; 604-654-6050. See article .
WEATHER OR NOT, Paula Connaghan, 2845 Pacific Blvd. SW, Albany, OR 97321; 541-924-1446. See article .
WILD RIVER REALTY, Bob Laux, 2 Main St., P.O. Box 997, Bethel, ME 04217; 207-824-3999. See article .