Sleep is hard, especially in a world where people spend their time busy and stressed.
But not sleeping, in addition to making you less efficient and more stressed, is terrible for your health.
Americans currently average 6.8 hours of sleep per night, down an hour from 1942. Four in 10 Americans don't even get the minimum of seven hours of sleep doctors recommend. That's a public health emergency. Fatigue leads to short and long term problems with mental and physical health.
Here's what the best research out there has to say about what you can do to help yourself fall asleep.
Sources: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Harvard Medical School
2. Put your phone away you monster
We're getting to the surprises, we promise. But if we don't get through these none of the other tips will work. Study after study has shown that watching a screen before bedtime is terrible for your sleep -- whether it's a TV screen, tablet, or phone. So if you want to fall asleep, step away from the pixels.
3. Kick your coffee habit
Coffee may help you deal with the symptoms of your sleep problems, but it also plays a role in causing them. Caffeine alters the melatonin levels in your brain, makes it take longer to fall asleep, and makes you sleep less -- even if you aren't drinking right before bed time.
4. Next, kick your alcohol habit
It's time to get real: Alcohol is the worst, particularly for insomniacs. (Ignore all those awful articles you read about red wine.) A National Institutes of Health review of decades of research shows that study after study demonstrates the ill effects drinking has on your sleep. Even light drinkers take longer to fall asleep, sleep less well, and sleep for less time than their sober neighbors. And alcohol even increases the odds of sleep illnesses like apnea.
5. Stop sleeping with awful people
Another way to say this would be: Make sure the person you go to bed with makes you happy. While researchers say there's still a lot to learn on how couples sleep in the same bed, the bulk of the evidence collected in a review suggests happy couples sleep better together -- and that people who sleep well together turn out to be happier couples.
Source: Sleep Medicine Reviews
6. Develop a bedtime routine
We already know that habits play an outsize role in many different aspects of your life. So it makes sense that they would also play a role in helping you fall asleep -- and many doctors do recommend developing a consistent routine. Unfortunately, there doesn't appear to be a ton of research on the impact of bedtime habits in adults, but research in children shows they can be very helpful.
7. Warm your feet and hands...
Research shows that a warm water bottle against your feet and/or hands as you lay in bed makes a measurable difference in the speed at which you fall asleep. Don't have one handy? Wear socks to bed. (And note that this doesn't apply to everyone: Some people prefer the opposite -- cold feet.)
8. ...but cool down your room
Your brain might prefer some warm extremities as you doze off, but it also does best in an atmosphere a bit cooler than what we typically think of as "room temperature." The Harvard's sleep lab recommends setting your thermostat a bit down -- to as low as 60 degrees, but really whatever you find is most comfortable.
Source: Harvard Medical School
9. Try to stay awake
The science on this one is a little thin -- there's only been one study that's tested it. But when researchers tested the cognitive trick of paradoxical intention -- basically, reverse psychology -- on patients it improved their speediness in falling asleep. If you find yourself unable to fall asleep, it might be worth a try.
10. Take a warm bath
This one also doesn't have a huge number of studies behind it, but it makes intuitive sense and the research behind it is good. Before you go to sleep, take a warm bath -- it seems to make it easier to pass out and make you sleep deeper once you are asleep.
11. Find the happy place in your head
12. Listen to music
A study showed that listening to classical music helped relax students and improve their sleep quality, while listening to an audiobook or nothing at all did not. The trick here likely isn't classical music in particular, but music that you find calming.
Source: Journal of Advanced Nursing
13. Fill your room with a lavender scent
A study of healthy sleepers showed that lavender scents helped young men and women sleep more deeply and wake up feeling more refreshed. Interestingly, men and women seemed to have somewhat different kinds of sleep in lavender-scented rooms. But both groups benefited.
Source: Chronobiology International
14. Blow bubbles
Blow bubbles, really. It's not as crazy as it sounds. Rachel Marie E. Salas, a professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, recommends the technique as a kind of simple deep-breathing exercise that you can do without any practice. Another benefit? Blowing bubbles is "silly" and distracting, which should help you clear your mind as you get read for bed.
Source: The New York Post
15. Try some melatonin
Melatonin is a hormone your body secretes on its own, believed to be involved in regulating your circadian rhythms. There's some debate in scientific circles about exactly how effective it is as a supplement, but research suggests it can be helpful and many doctors recommend it to their patients. Plus, it can be picked up relatively cheaply without a prescription at any drug store and it's harmless. Consult with a doctor or pharmacist, and start with a low dose and work your way up until you find one that works for you.
16. Figure out what works for you
You've likely noticed that many of the suggestions on this list center on finding and creating calming, sleep-promoting conditions. Every person is unique, and the specific tricks that work for you may vary. In addition to the big, important tips (stop drinking and looking at your phone late at night) try the others one or two at a time. Keep track of what makes a difference and stick with that.
17. If all else fails, go to your doctor
Some people have insomnia that won't shake on its own, no matter what they do. It might be tied to other health conditions, or might simply be an unfortunate problem that stands alone. In either case, missing sleep is bad for your health, lifespan, happiness, and well-being. A doctor should be able to diagnose the underlying issue. Harvard Medical School has a helpful page on its website with more information on when to seek treatment.
This post originally appeared on Business Insider.