You should never lie on your resume, but if you do, the punishment in the United States tends to be super mild. If you get caught (and there's always a chance you won't), you may not get the job, get fired, or be publicly humiliated. But you're very unlikely to serve time in jail.
The rest of the world doesn't operate in the same way. An unidentified Greek woman is currently serving prison time because she lied on her resume.
According to The New York Times, she worked for 18 years as a cleaner in a school, when an audit showed that she had "doctored a certificate to show she had completed six years of primary education (roughly elementary level) instead of only five."
Now, admittedly, actually forging a certificate is more serious than simply lying on a resume, but let's remember what certificate she forged: an elementary school one.
She's currently appealing the conviction to the highest court in Greece, and there is an online petition in her favor, with almost 30,000 people supporting her.
But before we go around condemning Greece for caring about education for a cleaning job, we should take a look in the mirror in the US. While people are very unlikely to ask about your first six years of school, there are licensing requirements for thousands of jobs which can be just as ridiculous as requiring a graduate from 6th-grade certificate.
For instance, many states require hair braiders to have cosmetology licenses, even though braiding isn't taught in the training. Interior decorators, florists, gas pumpers, and upholsterers must all obtain licenses to do their jobs in certain states. Just like the Athens janitor, having this certificate doesn't really indicate that these people are better or worse at their jobs.
And sometimes the licensing requirements are completely illogical. Take, for instance, the prisoners who have worked long, hard, hot, hours battling the blaze in California. Under California law, these people who have successfully done the job as prisoners aren't qualified to do it when the finish prison because California requires professional firefighters to also be licensed EMTs, and the EMT licensing board is allowed to reject anyone with a conviction. We talk out of one side of our mouths about "ban the box" legislation to help prevent discrimination against convicted felons, but then we prevent these same people from working in jobs they are clearly capable of doing and have done in the past.
So, while Greece definitely needs to recognize that it doesn't matter if a job candidate completed sixth grade or not; it only matters if she can do the job, the US needs to learn the same lesson. Making people jump through hoops doesn't solve all problems and often creates more.